When you choose to quote a text directly you should do so to give the reader an idea of the style or connotations present in the original source’s voice. While quoting material you must reproduce the source’s text word for word and if changes are made you must indicate them with ellipsis or brackets. It is also important to avoid taking quotes out of context as this will change the author’s original meaning.
You paraphrase when you condense short passages from a source’s words into your own words. Writers typically choose to paraphrase when specific details of a source are important or when the source’s original text needs to be simplified for the reader. It is important when you paraphrase to avoid reproducing the original author’s grammar and syntax, because if you mirror the original text’s mechanics while only changing or replacing occasional words you are patchwriting.
Patchwriting is when you splice some of your language into someone else’s, and is frowned on or seen as dishonest because you aren’t fully composing your own sentences. When you patchwrite you misrepresent both your work and the work of the author whose ideas you are trying to convey.
An element that should always be a part of representing or covering another writer’s work is the effort to give credit to that author. When you summarize or analyze you must use attributive tags, signal phrases, or in-text citations to distinguish your ideas from your source’s.
In an attributive tag/signal phrase you state the author’s name along with an indicator that the information you are covering comes from them. The first time that you introduce an attributive tag in you essay you must use the author’s full name, while subsequent attributive tags can refer to the author by last name. Do not refer to the author by their first name only.
ex) “Bernadette Chandler states in her essay that”, “according to Marsh this was a useless effort”, “Lewis says”.
In an in-text citation/parenthetical citation you state your source’s author and the page number of the original text that you have taken from in parenthesis. The end punctuation of your sentence goes behind the parenthetical.
ex) “It wasn’t that Brown lacked a sense of priority, it just seemed a bit skewed” (Horne, 193).